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What is the yellow oxide powder?

wallpapers News 2021-06-03
The appearance of holmium oxide
According to light conditions, holmium oxide has a significant color change. It is light yellow under sunlight, and strong orange-red under the three primary color light sources, which is almost indistinguishable from erbium oxide under the same illumination, which is related to its sharp phosphorescent emission band. Holmium oxide has a wide band gap of 5.3 eV, so it should be colorless. The yellow color of holmium oxide is caused by a large number of lattice defects (such as oxygen vacancies) and internal conversion of Ho3+.
The main purpose of holmium oxide
It is used to manufacture new light source dysprosium holmium lamps, and can also be used as additives for yttrium-iron and yttrium-aluminum garnets and for preparing metal holmium. Holmium oxide can be used as a yellow and red colorant for Soviet diamonds and glass. Glass containing holmium oxide and holmium oxide solution (usually perchloric acid solution) have sharp absorption peaks in the spectrum of 200-900nm, so they can be used as standards for spectrometer calibration and have been commercialized. Like other rare earth elements, holmium oxide is also used as a special catalyst, phosphor and laser material. The wavelength of holmium laser is about 2.08 μm, and it can be pulsed or continuous light. This laser is harmless to the eyes and can be used in medicine, optical radar, wind speed measurement and atmospheric monitoring.

Toxicological data
1. Main irritant effects:
2. On the skin: irritating the skin and mucous membranes;
3. On the eyes: the effect of irritation;
4. Sensitization: There is no known sensitization.

How to store holmium oxide?
Holmium oxide is present in trace amounts in beryllium, lanthanum, and other rare earth ores. Holmium metal will oxidize immediately in the air, so natural holmium and holmium are synonymous. The abundance of holmium on the earth is 1.4mg/kg, ranking 56th among the elements. Holmium mines are mainly distributed in China, the United States, Brazil, India, Sri Lanka and Australia, and the total reserves are estimated to be 400,000 tons.
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